martes, 30 de noviembre de 2021

4. Literatura inglesa del siglo XIX

 Nuestros siguientes autores para esta última semana de noviembre son, de tres en tres: 

- los poetas románticos Wordsworth, Keats y Byron

- los novelistas Mary Shelley, Dickens y George Eliot.



GEORGE ELIOT     (1819-1880)

George Eliot, pseudonym of Mary Ann [later Marian] Evans, English novelist, b. Warwickshire; quarrelled with her father on her leaving the Church; self-taught in Continental writing and philosophy; went through intellectual/erotic infatuations and love affairs with intellectual men, some married; assistant ed. of the Westminster Review 1851; lived with G. H. Lewes c. 1854-1878; successful realist novelist and skeptic moralist; first ostracised as scandalous and then successful socialite; married young admirer John Walter Cross 1880 and died; left no children.

  _____.  trans. (unsigned). The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined. By David Friedrich Strauss. 1846.
_____, trans. The Essence of Christianity. By Ludwig Feuerbach. London, 1854.
_____. Scenes of Clerical Life. Stories. 1857.
_____. Adam Bede. Novel. 1859.
_____. The Mill on the Floss. Novel. 1860.
_____. Silas Marner. Novel. 1861.
_____. Romola. Novel. Serialized in the Cornhill Magazine. 1863.
_____. Felix Holt, the Radical. Novel. 1866.
_____. Middlemarch: A Study of English Provincial Life. Novel. 1871/2.
_____. Daniel Deronda. Novel. 1874-76.

Apuntes sobre George Eliot.

Resumen de Middlemarch .



George Eliot: A Scandalous Life

George Eliot (audio at Oxford University).

A lecture by Rebecca Mead on George Eliot's Middlemarch.

Uno de los amigos e inspiradores de George Eliot fue Herbert Spencer. Aquí hay unanota sobre su influyente teoría de la evolución cósmica.

Empezaremos diciembre con Mary Shelley y Dickens. Traed los textos a clase.

CHARLES DICKENS         (1812-1870)
Victorian novelist, playwright and journalist; b. near Portsmouth; run-down middle-class family, son of a clerk in the Navy pay office, father imprisoned for debt, unhappy childhood experience when forced to work as a child in a factory, apprenticed clerk, stenographer at Parliament, journalist at the Morning Chronicle, married Catherine Hogarth; had many children; in love with sister-in-law, soon dead; lover of young actress Ellen Ternan, separated from wife Catherine 1858; world success and fortune as writer of serialized novels; friend of John Forster, Wilkie Collins, etc., energetic socialite and amateur actor;  travels in USA and Italy; anti-slavery advocate in America, philanthropist and social reformer, launched periodicals (Household Words, Daily Mail), popular entertainer with public reading tours of his novels, d. of heart failure.
_____. Sketches by Boz. Serialized in Old Monthly Magazine. 1836-37.
_____. The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club. Serialized novel. 1836-37.
_____. The Adventures of Oliver Twist. Novel. 1837-8.
_____. The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby. Novel. 1838-9.
_____. The Old Curiosity Shop. Novel. Serialized in Master Humphrey's Clock. 1840-41.
_____. Barnaby Rudge. Novel. Serialized in Master Humphrey's Clock. 1841.
_____. American Notes. 1842.
_____. A Christmas Carol. 1843. (Other Christmas stories in the 40s, 50s and 60s).
_____. Martin Chuzzlewit. Novel. 1844.
_____. Pictures from Italy. Travel book. 1846.
_____. Dombey and Son. Novel. 1846-1848.
_____. David Copperfield. Novel. Serialized 1849-1850.
_____. Bleak House. Novel. Serialized 1852-1853.
_____. Hard Times. Novel. Serialized in Household Words, 1854.
_____. Little Dorrit. Novel. Serialized 1855-1857.
_____. A Tale of Two Cities. Novel. 1859.
_____. Great Expectations. Novel. Serialized 1860-1861.
_____. Our Mutual Friend. Novel. 1864-5.
_____. The Mystery of Edwin Drood. Unfinished novel. 1870.

Life of Dickens —and main works—from the Oxford Companion to English Literature. 


Cazamian on Dickens as a social novelist.

Charles Dickens (Victorian Values)—some notes from Stephen Coote's handbook.


Dickens en cine: Algunas películas







MARY SHELLEY    (1797-1851)

Mary Shelley, née Mary Godwin, English woman of letters, novelist and prose writer; daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin; m. Percy Bysshe Shelley 1816.

_____.  (Anon. pub.). Frankenstein,or, The Modern Prometheus. Novel. 1818.
_____. Valperga. Novel. 1821.
_____. The Last Man. Novel. 1826.
_____. The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck. Novel. 1830.

_____. Lodore. Novel. 1835.
_____. Essays and Letters. 1839.
_____. Rambles in Germany and Italy. Travel book. 1844.

Ballesteros, Antonio. "Mary Shelley y Frankenstein: La creación de un mito y suproyección en la literatura fantástica victoriana." Conferencia en la Fundación Juan March.

Una pequeña introducción a Mary Shelley.

Sobre Mary Shelley y Frankenstein, nos remitiremos además
a este documental de la serie "Profetas de la Ciencia Ficción".



La novela de Mary Shelley The Last Man, sobre una mortífera pandemia global que acaba con la humanidad, es modelo y precedente de toda una "plaga" de literatura pandémica y apocalíptica. En la Unidad 6 podéis leer sobre Jack London y "La Peste Escarlata." Con respecto a la actual pandemia del coronavirus, sin embargo, conviene tener en cuenta otros factores culturales e históricos. Véase por ejemplo este vídeo sobre control global y pandemia, que es de 2014—no de 2020. Esto también es, a su manera, literatura de anticipación.

Otra ficción reciente que recreaba un evento apocalíptico era The Road, de Cormac McCarthy. Aquí una nota sobre la novela, y la película.



Mary Shelley's FRANKENSTEIN - A film directed by Kenneth Branagh (1994).




LORD BYRON    (George Gordon, 1788-1824)

George Gordon Noel, Lord Byron, English romantic poet, b. London, member of the Chamber of Lords; abandoned England 1816, travels in Europe; Italy and Greece; libertine with innumerable erotic affairs, fascinated and scandalized his social circle; friend of Shelley, fought vs. Turks on Greek side pro independence, d. Missolunghi, Greece; individualist, skeptic, hedonist, satirist of social conventions.

Hours of Idleness. Poems.
_____. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. 1812-1818.
_____. The Giaour. Verse romance. 1813.
_____. The Corsair. Verse romance. 1814.
_____. The Bride of Abydos. Verse romance.
_____. "Darkness." Poem. 1816.   
_____. Domestic Pieces. 1816.
_____. "Prometheus." Poem. 1816.
_____. Manfred: A Dramatic Poem.  1817.
_____. Beppo. Verse romance. 1818.
_____. Mazeppa. 1819.
_____. Don Juan, an Epic Satire. Satirical epic. 1818-23, pub. 1919-24.
_____. Cain. Tragedy. 1821.
_____. "The Vision of Judgment." Poem. 1822.
_____. "January 22nd. Missolonghi: On This Day I Complete my Thirty Sixth Year." Poem. 1824.

Lord Byron and his Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (BBC).



NIVEL AVANZADO: Sobre la hija de Byron, Ada:

- Ada Lovelace, la primera programadora

- El sueño de Ada Byron



Nuestro siguientes autores serán dos poetas románticos, Wordsworth y Keats. Leeremos en clase de los dos, así que traed los textos.



JOHN KEATS     (1795-1821)

English romantic poet; modest middle class family, apprenticed and licensed as apothecary 1816, met Leigh Hunt and Shelley, travelled to the Lakes, Scotland and Ireland with Charles Armitage Brown and settled with him 1817; in love with Fanny Brawne; financial problems, suffered from tuberculosis, attacked by Lockhart and other reviewers; travelled to Italy, d. Rome. BIOGRAPHY OF JOHN KEATS.

_____.  Poems by John Keats. London: Ollier, 1817.
_____. Endymion. 1818.
_____. "The Fall of Hyperion: A Dream." Fragmentary epic poem. 1819, pub. 1857.
_____. "Ode to Autumn."  pub. 1820 with:
_____. "Ode on Melancholy."
_____. "Ode on a Grecian Urn."
_____. "Ode to a Nightingale."
_____. Lamia, Isabella, The Eve of St. Agnes, and Other Poems.  1820. 
_____. The Letters of John Keats, 1814-1821.

_______. "Why Did I Laugh Tonight?" 1819, pub. 1848.  







NIVEL AVANZADO:  Otros poetas románticos.

KUBLA KHAN un célebre poema visionario de Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 

Y de Percy Bysshe Shelley, "Ode to the West Wind".





WILLIAM WORDSWORTH     (1770-1850)

English romantic poet; country middle-class childhood in Cumbria, school with future wife Mary Hutchinson; orphaned as a boy, left Cambridge; fought for inheritance; radical youth, travelled to France during Revolution, 1 illegitimate secret child there, returned to England, disillusioned with Terror, depressed by personal and historical turmoils; friends and german travels with Samuel Taylor Coleridge; later friends with Walter Scott, De Quincey and Sir George Beaumont; married and lived in Grasmere, Lake District, with sister Dorothy and wife Mary (1802); 5 children with Mary, lost 2 children; official position at the post office administration; later lived in the South and  turned conservative Victorian sage, retired in the Lake District, Ambleside; received legacies and help for his poetry, pensioned in 1842, then Poet Laureate 1843. Known for his poetry of the emotions, of memories and of intensely-lived experience, expressed in a simpler language reacting against 18th-c. poetic diction.


_____.  Descriptive Sketches. 1793.
_____. Lyrical Ballads, with Pastoral and Other Poems. 1800. (With some poems by S. T. Coleridge).     
_____. The Prelude. 1st version, 1799; rev. 1805; 1st pub. in 3rd rev. version, 1850.
_____. "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood." 1802-4, pub. 1807.
_____. "Tintern Abbey."
_____. Poems. 1807.  ("The Solitary Reaper")

_____. The Excursion. Poem. 1814.




En nuestra Sección B, estamos ya en el último tema: 8. Literatura norteamericana desde 1960. 

A principios de diciembre tendréis ya en red todo el material para la sección B, temas 6-7-8. 





Con Mary Wollstonecraft cerramos el siglo XVIII; con Blake ya pasamos al XIX, y a continuación empezamos la Unidad 4 (Literatura inglesa del siglo XIX).

Primero Austen y Walter Scott—traed las lecturas—, y a continuación más poetas románticos: Wordsworth, Keats,  Byron, Mary Shelley. Luego seguirán Dickens, George Eliot, Tennyson, Hopkins, Wilde y Wells.  Traed los textos por ese orden a clase.

Los textos van siendo selecciones más largas de novelas, etc.; procurad asignaros (y mantener) un horario para lecturas. La lectura sistemática con diccionario es imprescindible para desarrollar el tipo de dominio de la lengua que puede aportar sólo la literatura.



SECCIÓN B: En la sección B del programa, para estudio fuera de clase, vamos añadiendo ya los últimos autores del tema 8 y último—Literatura Norteamericana 1960-2000.


SIR WALTER SCOTT     (1771-1832)

_____, ed. The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. 1802-3.
_____. The Lay of the Last Minstrel. Poem. 1805.
_____. Ballads and Lyrical Pieces. 1806.
_____. Marmion: A Tale of Flodden Field. Poem. 1808.
_____. The Lady of the Lake. Poem. 1810.
_____. Rokeby. Poem. 1813.
_____. Waverley, or 'Tis Sixty Years Since. Novel.  1814.
_____. Guy Mannering, or, The Astrologer. Novel. 1815.
_____. The Field of Waterloo. Poem. 1815.
_____. The Antiquary. Novel. 1816.
_____. Old Mortality. Novel. 1816.
_____. Rob Roy. Novel. 1817.
_____ . The Heart of Midlothian. Novel. 1818.
_____. Tales of My Landlord: Third Series. (The Bride of Lammermoor and A Legend of Montrose). Novels. 1819.
_____. Ivanhoe, a Romance. Novel. 1819.
_____. The Monastery, A Romance. 1820.
_____. Kenilworth: A Romance. 1821.
_____. The Pirate. Novel. 1821.
_____. The Fortunes of Nigel. Novel. 1822.
_____. Quentin Durward. Novel. 1823.
_____. Redgauntlet, A Tale of the Eighteenth Century. Novel. 1824.
_____. Tales of the Crusaders (The Betrothed and The Talisman). 1825.
_____. Woodstock; or, The Cavalier. Novel. 1826.

Walter Scott, Scottish novelist, poet and scholar; st. law at Edinburgh U, bar 1792; m. Margaret Charlotte Charpentier 1797; successful poet, printer with James Ballantyne; contributor to Edinburgh Review; built Abbotsford mansion; promoted Tory Quarterly Review; refused Laureateship 1813; pub. historical novels anonymously as "the author of Waverley" until 1827; baronet ("Sir") 1820; bankrupt with Ballantyne 1826; struggled to pay debts; world-wide influence on historical novelists and nationalist romance writers.

Influences on Scott:

Thomas Percy. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. 1765.
Maria Edgeworth, Castle Rackrent. Novel. 1800.
Nuestra lectura de Walter Scott, en las fotocopias, es el capítulo 2 de Woodstock.

Una sección de un manual de literatura sobre Walter Scott.  
Y unas notas sobre "La novela histórica: Parámetros para su definición".


Apuntes sobre The Novels of Jane Austen (and Fanny Burney)

Una conferencia sobre la época de Jane Austen de Fernando Galván, que ha sido presidente de la Asociación Española de Estudios Anglo-Norteamericanos (AEDEAN) y de la European Society for the Study of English (ESSE):

De Jane Austen tenemos como lectura, en las fotocopias, el principio de su novela Mansfield Park.

JANE AUSTEN     (1775-1817)

English realist novelist; b. Steventon, near Winchester; 7th child of the parish rector; lived unmarried with her family in Steventon, also in Bath 1801-5, then Hampshire and Winchester, novelist of genteel country families, of courtship and marriage, and fine psychological ironist on character, social appearances and manners.

_____. Northanger Abbey. Written 1790s, pub. 1818.
_____. Sense and Sensibility. Novel. London, 1811.
_____. Pride and Prejudice. Novel. 1813.
_____. Mansfield Park. Novel. 1814.  
_____. Emma. Novel. 1816.
_____. Persuasion. Novel. Written 1815-16, pub. 1818.

- Some notes on Jane Austen (Short Oxford History of English Literature).

- Un documental de la UNED sobre Jane Austen (ENLACE AL VIDEO)


- Y una conferencia de Fernando Galván sobre la obra de Jane Austen.


- Una de las muchas películas basadas en las novelas de Jane Austen: Northanger Abbey

- Jane Austen y Walter Scott: NIVEL AVANZADO

Los autores anteriores, en el tema 3: literatura inglesa 1660-1800


lunes, 29 de noviembre de 2021



Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Dir. Kenneth Branagh. Screenplay by Steph Lady and Frank Darabont, based on Mary Shelley's novel.


Prod. Francis Ford Coppola, James V. Hart, John Veitch. Coprod. Kenneth Branagh, David Parfitt. Prod. design Tim Harvey. Photog. dir. Robert Pratt. Ed. Andrew Marcus. Costumes by James Acheson. Music: Patrick Doyle.  


Cast: Robert de Niro, Kenneth Branagh, Hom Hulce, Helena Bonham Carter, Aidan Quinn, Ian Holm, Richard Briers, John Cleese. Cherie Lunghi, Treuyn McDowell. 


TriStar Pictures / Japan Satellite Broadcasting / The Indie Prod. Company / American Zoetrope, 1994.








domingo, 28 de noviembre de 2021

8. Literatura norteamericana 1960-


SECCIÓN B, tema 8 (Literatura norteamericana 1960-)






Some contemporary American novelists: Prose after Postmodernism



Philip Roth (1933-2018)

Jewish-American postmodernist novelist; l. Connecticut 1972-; Gold Medal of the Arts 1986, White House, 1998; Gold Medal for Narrative of the American Academy of Arts and Letters 2001; Booker International 2011, Premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras 2012; National Book Award, PEN/Faulkner Award, National Book Critics Circle Award; complete works published by the Library of America.


Roth, Philip. Portnoy's Complaint. Novel.  1967, 1968, 1969.

_____. The Breast. Novel. 1972. (Kepesh books).

_____. My Life as a Man. 1974.

_____. Reading Myself and Others. Essays.  1975.

_____. The Professor of Desire. 1977. (Kepesh books).

_____. The Ghost Writer. Novel.  1979. (Zuckerman series) (Holocaust).

_____. The Anatomy Lesson. Novel. 1983. (Zuckerman series).

_____. The Counterlife. Novel. 1986.. (Zuckerman series).

_____. The Facts: A Novelist's Autobiography. 1988. (Roth books).

_____. Deception. 1990. (Roth books). (Adultery).

_____. Sabbath's Theater. Novel. 1995. (1995 National Book Award)

_____. American Pastoral. Novel. 1997. (Zuckerman series).  (1998 Pulitzer Prize).

_____. I Married a Communist. Novel. 1998. (Zuckerman series).

_____. The Human Stain. Novel.  2000.* (Zuckerman series).

_____. The Dying Animal. Novel. 2001.

_____. The Plot against America. Novel. 2004. (Alternative history novel on Charles Lindbergh and Nazism).

_____. Everyman. 2006.

_____. Nemesis. Novel. 2010.

Unas notas sobre Philip Roth, novelista judío norteamericano, perpetuo candidato al Nobel que, recientemente fallecido, se quedó sin él. Aquí una entrevista:

De Roth tenemos como lectura en las fotocopias el primer capítulo de su novela The Human Stain (1, Everyone Knows, 1-75). También hay una buena película sobre esta novela.


NIVEL AVANZADO: Philip Roth Unleashed.


3 Yale lectures on The Human Stain.



Vamos terminando la sección B incluida en el programa (literatura del siglo XX) con unas palabras sobre literatura norteamericana desde 1960-, mencionando a:

John Barth, novelista experimental y postmoderno,

 (más notas sobre JOHN BARTH aquí)

y a

Anne Sexton,


poeta existencialista y suicida.  (Obituario de Anne Sexton en el New York Times).

De todos estos autores tenéis alguna lectura en el bloque de fotocopias. De Barth,
el relato metaficcional "Life-Story"; de Sexton, los poemas "The Abortion" y "Cripples and Other Stories".  




De Joyce Carol Oates, tenemos entre las lecturas el relato "Secret Observations on the Goat-Girl".

   Wikipedia on JCO.

- Flannery O'Connor, Carson McCullers & Joyce Carol Oates (Gray).








De Toni Morrison, novelista del realismo mágico y último premio Nobel de la literatura norteamericana incluido en el programa, podéis leer en las fotocopias un capítulo de su novela Beloved (cap. 3, 239-75).

Más notas sobre Toni Morrison. 

 El contexto para leer el texto de Beloved (Wikipedia)







- Más sobre Anne Sexton y su entorno poético - La poesía intimista y confesional (según Richard Gray).

- Una entrevista con Joyce Carol Oates:

Lopate, Leonard. "The Deaths that Changed Joyce Carol Oates' Life." Interview with Joyce Carol Oates. Audio. (The Leonard Lopate Show). WNYC 13 Oct. 2015.*

- Recordad que tenemos otros novelistas premios Nobel en lengua inglesa, varios todavía en activo. Y en poesía norteamericana también tenemos dos Premios Nobel recientes:

En 2016, el cantautor Bob Dylan. Aquí algunas de sus canciones en un concierto de mediados de los años setenta:



Y en 2020, la poetisa Louise Glück. Aquí pueden leerse u oírse algunos de sus poemas.

Aquí lee Glück algunos poemas de su libro Faithful and Virtuous Night:



Sección B, unidad 7: Literatura inglesa 1960-2000

lunes, 22 de noviembre de 2021


Yendo un poco más deprisa, intentaremos ver (o al menos nombrar en clase... a tres autores del programa cada día. El 22 de noviembre, a Gray, Johnson y Blake; y el 23 terminamos el tema 3 con Wollstonecraft, y pasamos al 4 con Austen y Scott.



Mary Wollstonecraft   (1759-1797)

English woman of letters, philosopher and novelist, political thinker and educationist, major theorist of feminism. Born in London, unhappy childhood with brutal improvident father; loved Fanny Blood; self-educated schoolteacher, Dissenter, frequented Unitarian and radical circles, hack writer for Joseph Johnson, unhappy infatuation with Henry Fuseli; feminist and radical activist; travelled to France during Revolution, met Gilbert Imlay, had illegitimate daughter Fanny Imlay; rejected and exploited by Imlay, travelled to Scandinavia as his business agent, attempted suicide in Putney Bridge, rescued; friendship and marriage with William Godwin, died after giving birth to daughter Mary Godwin [later Mary Shelley]. As a feminist writer, she emphasizes the importance of education in modelling character and socially promoting the equality of women, rather than the straightforward demand of political rights for women.

_____. Thoughts on the Education of Daughters. 1787.
_____. Original Stories. Children's book. 1788.
_____. Mary: A Fiction.  1788.

_____, ed. The Female Reader. 1789.

_____. A Vindication of the Rights of Men.  1790.
_____. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.  1792. 
_____. An Historical and Moral View. . . of the French Revolution.  1794.
_____. Letters Written During a Short Residence in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. 1796.
_____. Maria, or The Wrongs of Woman.  Unfinished novel. In Posthumous Works, 1798.

Nuestra lectura de Mary Wollstonecraft es una selección de Vindication of the Rights of Woman (en las fotocopias).

Aquí una presentación sobre Mary Wollstonecraft como filósofa feminista: una pequeña lección de la UNED (audio) sobre Mary Wollstonecraft y su Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

Lady Macbeth sonámbula, un cuadro de uno de los amados de Mary Wollstonecraft, el pintor romántico Henry Fuseli.


 Dr Kat on Mary Wollstonecraft:


Political writers of the 1790s:

Edmund Burke. Conciliation with the American Colonies. 1775.

_______. Reflections on the Revolution in France. 1790.


Richard Price. Observations on Civil Liberty. 1776.

William Godwin. Political Justice. 1793.




Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin.




Obras de William Blake  (1757-1827):

_____.  Songs of Innocence. 1789.
_____.  The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. c.1790-93.
_____.  America: A Prophecy. 1793.
_____.  Visions of the Daughters of Albion. 1793.
_____.   Songs of Experience. 1794.  ("The Clod and the Pebble"; "London")
_____.  The Book of Urizen. Poem. 1794.
_____.  Europe: A Prophecy. 1794.
_____.  The Book of Los.  Poem. 1795.
_____.  The Four Zoas (Orig. Vala), written and rev. 1797-1804.

_____. "Auguries of Innocence." 1803.
_____.  Milton, a Poem in Two Books. 1804-8.
_____.  Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. 1804-20.

_____. "The Everlasting Gospel." 1818.

William Blake y sus grabados
en Google Images.

De Blake tenemos en la selección de lecturas unos poemas: "The Clod and the Pebble", "London", y "Auguries of Innocence".

- Un audio de la BBC sobre Songs of Innocence & Songs of Experience de William Blake. (Este programa de la BBC 4, In Our Time, es una excelente idea añadirlo a vuestros favoritos para practicar inglés con temas de interés cultural).






NIVEL AVANZADO: A video documentary on William Blake


Samuel Johnson  (1709-1784)

_____. "London, A Poem in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal." 1738.
_____.  "The Vanity of Human Wishes: The Tenth Satire of Juvenal Imitated." 1749.
_____.  The Rambler.  London, 1750-2.
_____.  A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words are Deduced from Their Originals, and Illustrated in Their Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers.   2 vols. London, 1755. 
_____.  The Idler.  Periodical. 1758-60.
_____.  The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abisinia.  Novel. 1759.
_____, ed. The Plays of William Shakespeare, with Notes, etc.  1765. ("Preface to Shakespeare")
_____.  Lives of the English Poets.  1778-1780. 
_____.  Prayers and Meditations. 1785.

Prose in the Age of Reason
(Anthony Burgess).

Dos conferencias: Johnson y Boswell.

De Johnson tenemos una selección de lecturas en las fotocopias.



- The Age of Johnson (video lecture)

- Un documental sobre Samuel Johnson:

- Samuel Johnson as critic (video lectures). 


From Johnson's Club:


James Boswell. The Life of Samuel Johnson. 1791.

Oliver Goldsmith, The Citizen of the World. Essays. 1760s.

_____. The Vicar of Wakefield. Novel. 1766.

_____. The Deserted Village. Poem. 1770.

_____. She Stoops to Conquer. Drama. 1771. 




Thomas Gray  (1716-1771)

_____. "Ode on the Spring." 1742.
_____. "Ode to Adversity." 1742.
_____. "Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College." 1742.
_____. "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard."  Written 1742-50. Pub. 1751.
_____. "The Progress of Poesy." Ode. Written. 1754. Pub. 1757.
_____.  "The Bard." Ode. Written 1754-57. Pub. 1757.
_____. "The Triumphs of Owen." Poem. Written c. 1764. Pub. 1768.
_____. "The Fatal Sisters. From the Norse Tongue."  Poem. Written 1761. Pub. 1768.
_____. "The Descent of Odin." Poem. Poem. Written 1761. Pub. 1768.
_____. Poems. 1768.

 _____. Journal in the Lakes. Written 1769, pub. 1775.
_____.  Journal in France. Written 1739. Posthumous.


Leeremos de Gray el poema incluido en las fotocopias, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard".



Other poets of the "age of sensibility", the Graveyard School and pre-Romantics:


James Thomson, The Seasons. 1730.


Edward Young, Night Thoughts. 1745.


William Collins, "Ode to Evening." 1746. 

William Cowper, The Task. 1775.

____. "The Castaway". 1799. 


James MacPherson. The Works of Ossian son of Fingal. 1765.


Thomas Chatterton. Poems, Supposed to Have Been Written at Bristol, by Thomas Rowley. 1777. 


NIVEL AVANZADO:  Gray y sus coetáneos




15 de noviembre: Textos de Defoe y Swift

16 de noviembre: El plan es hablar de Richardson, Fielding y Sterne. Si llegamos a tanto, pero hay que ir deprisa.



En la sección B (Siglo XX, estudio fuera de aula) seguimos añadiendo materiales, ya para dar fin a la Unidad 7.





Laurence Sterne (1713-1768)

English novelist, b. Ireland, studied in Cambridge; Anglican priest in Yorkshire, unfortunate and scandalous marriage; follower of Rabelais and Cervantes; of Burton, Locke and Swift; satirical and sentimental prose writer, humourist student of character and experimental psychological novelist; parodist of pedantry and erudition combined with sexual allusions; he often appears as 'Yorick' in his works; success with Tristram Shandy, unhappy love story with 'Eliza'; travelled in Europe with poor health.
_____. A Political Romance. 1759.
_____. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman.  Novel. 9 vols. 1759-67.
_____. Sermons. 7 vols. 1760-1769.
_____. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, by Mr Yorick. Travel book. 1761.
_____. Letters from Yorick to Eliza. 1773.

Some introductory notes on Sterne.

Tenemos en las fotocopias una selección de páginas de Tristram Shandy.


- Daiches on Sterne

- La aporía temporal de Tristram Shandy

Otros novelistas significativos de finales del siglo XVIII son:

Frances Burney, Evelina. 1778.

_____. Cecilia.  1782. 


- Tobias Smollett (Humphry Clinker)
- Ann Radcliffe (The Mysteries of Udolpho)

- William Godwin (Caleb Williams)

Mullan, John. "The Rise of the Novel." British Library 21 June 2018.*


HENRY  FIELDING         (1707-1754)

_____. The Author's Farce And the Pleasures of the Town. 1730.
_____. The Tragedy of Tragedies, or Tom Thumb the Great. 1731.
_____. The Covent Garden Tragedy. 1732.
_____. The Mock Doctor. 1732. Adaptation of Molière's Le Médecin Malgré Lui.
_____. The Miser. 1733. Adaptation of Molière's L'Avare.
_____. Don Quixote in England. Comedy. 1736.
_____. Pasquin. Farce. 1737.
_____. The Historical Register for the Year 1736. Farce. 1737.
_____. The Champion. Periodical. 1739.
_____. (Attr.). An Apology for the Life of Mrs Shamela Andrews, etc., by Conny Keyber. Parody. 1741.
_____. The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews, and of His Friend Mr Abraham Adams: Written in Imitation of the Manner of Cervantes, Author of "Don Quixote". Novel. 1742.
_____. A Journey from this World to the Next. Menippean satire. In Miscellanies.Vol. 2. 1743.
_____. The Life of Mr. Jonathan Wild the Great. Novel. In Fielding, Miscellanies. Vol. 3. 1743.
_____. The True Patriot. Periodical. 1745-46.
_____. The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. Novel. 1749.
_____. Amelia. Novel. 1751.
_____. The Covent-Garden Journal. Periodical. 1752.
_____. Proposal for Making an Effectual Provision for the Poor. 1753.
_____. A Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon. 1754.

Fielding was an English novelist, dramatist and journalist; gentleman; st. Leiden; lawyer and anti-Walpole satirist; social reformer; novelist "in the style of Cervantes"; Westminster magistrate, severe illness, d. Lisbon. Some notes here.

En las fotocopias hay una selección de capítulos de Tom Jones  (I.1-5, pp. 51-61; I.9-10, 144-49; VII.1-3, 299-305)


NIVEL AVANZADO: An audio introduction to Tom Jones.

William Hogarth, "Canvassing for Votes"




SAMUEL RICHARDSON     (1689-1761)

Major English novelist, began as London printer apprentice, later prosperous self-made businessman; family man, distressed by death of many children and wife; remarried, had nervous disorders; master printer of London and bourgeois novelist; developed sentimental epistolary novel with psychological and "feminist" interest. 

_____. Letters Written to and for Particular Friends, on the most important Occasions. Directing not only the Requisite Style and Forms to be observed in Writing Familiar Letters; but how to think and act justly and prudently, in the common Concerns of Human Life. 1741.
_____. [Unsigned] Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded.  Novel. 1740.
_____. Pamela in Her Exalted Condition. Novel. 1741.
_____. Clarissa, or, The History of a Young Lady.  Novel. 8 vols. 1747-48. 
_____. The History of Sir Charles Grandison. Novel. 1753-4.

Tenéis en las fotocopias una selección de Pamela (letters i-xii, pp. 43-57)



Some notes here: 




Un audio de la BBC (In Our Time) sobre Epistolary Fiction.


A Yahoo:

Jonathan Swift (1667-1745).

_____. The Battle of the Books.
_____.  A Tale of a Tub.  Satire. Written 1696-8. Pub.1704, 1710.
_____, ed. The Examiner (Bolingbroke’s Tory newspaper). 1710. Written 1696-8. Pub. 1704.
_____. Journal to Stella. 1710-1713. Pub. 1766-8.
_____. Proposal for the Universal Use of Irish Manufacture. Pamphlet. 1720.
_____. Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, by Lemuel Gulliver. Written 1721-25. London, 1726. (a.k.a. Gulliver's Travels)
_____. The Drapier's Letters. Pamphlet series. 1724.
_____. A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People from Being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country. 1729.
_____. "Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift." Satire. 1731, pub. 1739.
_____. Works. 4 vols. Dublin: George Faulkner, 1735.

Some notes on Swift and on other prose writers of the early 18th c.


NIVEL AVANZADO: A lecture on Jonathan Swift's life and world.

Cazamian: Universal Criticism: Arbuthnot and Swift



Daniel Defoe (1660-1731)  (Daniel Foe to 1695)

_____. An Essay upon Projects.  1697.
_____. Enquiry into the Occasional Conformity of Dissenters. Pamphlet. 1698.
_____. Legion's Memorial to the House of Commons. Pamphlet. 1701.
_____. The True-Born Englishman.  Satirical poem. 1701.
_____. The Shortest Way with the Dissenters. Hoax pamphlet. 1702.
_____. Hymn to the Pillory. Satirical poem. 1702.
_____. The Review. Journalism. 1704-13.
_____. True Relation of the Apparition of one Mrs. Veal.
Tale. 1706.
_____. Mercator, or Commerce Retriev'd. Journal. 1713-14.
_____. The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe,of York, Mariner. Memoir novel. 1719. 
_____. The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe: Being the Second and Last Part of his Life. Narrative. 1719.
_____. Serious Reflections during the Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe: With his Vision of the Angelick World.  1720.
_____. The Memoirs of a Cavalier. Memoir novel. 1720.
_____.  Captain Singleton.  Memoir novel.  1720.
_____. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Memoir novel. 1722. 
_____.  Colonel Jacque.  Memoir novel.  1722.
_____. A Journal of the Plague Year. Apocryphal memoir. 1722.
_____. Religious Courtship. Moral treatise. 1722.
_____. Roxana, The Fortunate Mistress. Memoir novel. 1724.
_____. A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain. Guide book.  3 vols. 1724-26.
_____. The Complete English Tradesman. Non-fiction. 1726.
_____. A Plan of the English Commerce. Non-fiction. 1728.
_____. The Complete English Gentleman.  Non-fiction. 1729, pub. 1890.


Some notes on Daniel Defoe and his works.

Un clásico del cine aragonés sobre la novela más famosa de Defoe. Robinson Crusoe,  de Luis Buñuel (1952).

NIVEL AVANZADO: Un audio de la BBC sobre Robinson Crusoe (In Our Time).

Alexander Pope:

Some works by

ALEXANDER POPE     (1688-1744)

(English poet, son of a Catholic businessman; small and crook-backed, poor health; l. unmarried in Twickenham; Catholic/deist, associated first with Whigs and soon with Scriblerus club of Tory satirists; friend of Gay, Swift, Arbuthnot, Bolingbroke; quarrelsome man of letters, conservative Tory critic of men and manners; neoclassical model in English poetry after Dryden)

_____. Pastorals. 1709.
_____.  An Essay on Criticism.  1711. 
_____. The Rape of the Lock. First version. 1712. Enlarged ed. 1714.
_____. "Windsor Forest." 1713.
_____, trans. Iliad. 1715-20.
_____. "Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard." Poem. 1717.
_____. The Works.  1717.
_____. "Preface to The Works of Shakespear."  1725. 
_____, trans. Odyssey. 1725-26. (In collaboration)
_____.  Peri Bathous or, The Art of Sinking in Poetry.  1727. 
_____. The Dunciad. books I-III. 1728-1743.
_____. Essay on Man. 1733-1734.  (Epistle I)
_____. Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot.  Poem. 1735.
_____. Imitations of Horace. 1737.

Introductory notes to Pope.

An introduction to The Essay on Man.



Pope and his elder contemporaries in verse (Saintsbury)


SARAH EGERTON     (1670-1723)

Sarah Fyge Egerton, née Sarah Fyge, English poet of the Dryden school, outspoken feminist, precocious writer, teenage feminist; sent to the country by her parents to repress her, forced to marry Edward Field, widow, m. cousin Reverend Thomas Egerton, unsuccessfuly sued for divorce, loved Henry Pierce, object of scandal and public ridicule, forgotten as a poet and recovered by feminist critics in the 20th century.

_____. (anon.). The Female Advocate or, an Answer to a Late Satyr Against the Pride, Lust and Inconstancy, c. of Woman. Written by a Lady in Vindication of her Sex. 1686. (A verse satire published in response to Robert Gould's misogynist satire, A Late Satyr Against the Pride, Lust, and Inconstancy, etc. of Woman, 1682). 

_____. (signed S. F.). Poems on Several Occasions, Together with a Pastoral… 1703.
_____. "The Emulation."

Sarah Egerton: The Emulation

Say, tyrant Custom, why must we obey
The impositions of thy haughty sway?
From the first dawn of life unto the grave,
Poor womankind's in every state a slave,
The nurse, the mistress, parent and the swain,
For love she must, there's none escape that pain.
Then comes the last, the fatal slavery:
The husband with insulting tyranny
Can have ill manners justified by law,
For men all join to keep the wife in awe.
Moses, who first our freedom did rebuke,
Was married when he writ the Pentateuch.
They're wise to keep us slaves, for well they know,
If we were loose, we should soon make them so.
We yield like vanquished kings whom fetters bind,
When chance of war is to usurpers kind;
Submit in form; but they'd our thoughts control,
And lay restraints on the impassive soul.
They fear we should excel their sluggish parts,
Should we attempt the sciences and arts;
Pretend they were designed for them alone,
So keep us fools to raise their own renown.
Thus priests of old, their grandeur to maintain,
Cried vulgar eyes would sacred laws profane;
So kept the mysteries behind a screen:
Their homage and the name were lost had they been seen.
But in this blessèd age such freedom's given,
That every man explains the will of heaven;
And shall we women now sit tamely by,
Make no excursions in philosophy,
Or grace our thoughts in tuneful poetry?
We will our rights in learning's world maintain;
Wit's empire now shall know a female reign.
Come, all ye fair, the great attempt improve,
Divinely imitate the realms above:
There's ten celestial females govern wit,
And but two gods that dare pretend to it.
And shall these finite males reverse their rules?
No, we'll be wits, and then men must be fools.



Otras autoras feministas de la Restauración y 1700 (NIVEL AVANZADO)


Nuestros primeros autores en este tema, el 8 de noviembre, serán Milton, Rochester y Dryden

JOHN DRYDEN     (1631-1700)

English man of letters, b. Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire; st. Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge; Parliamentarian protestant background, soon Anglican Royalist courtier, converted to catholicism 1686; successful playwright, Poet Laureate 1668; Historiographer 1670; Tory satirist and polemicist vs. Whigs; lost jobs in 1688 Revolution; then jacobite; neoclassical critic and translator; influential dramatist, poet and critic, d. London; buried at Westminster Abbey after some grotesque incidents.

_____. "A Poem upon the Death of His Late Highness, Oliver, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland." 1659.
_____. Astraea Redux. A Poem on the Happy Restoration and Return of his Sacred Majesty Charles the Second. Poem. 1660.
_____. "To His Sacred Majesty, A Panegyrick on his Coronation." 1661.
_____. The Rival Ladies. Tragicomedy. 1664.
_____. The Indian Emperor, or The Conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards. Heroic drama. 1665.
_____.  Annus Mirabilis, The Year of wonders, 1666. An Historical Poem: containing the Progress and various Successes of our Naval War with Holland, under the Conduct of His Highness Prince Rupert (...)  And describing the Fire of London.  1667.
_____. The Tempest, or The Enchanted Island.  Operatic adaptation, with William Davenant. 1667, pr. 1670.
_____.  Of Dramatic Poesy: An Essay.  1668. 
_____. Tyrannick love, or , The Royal Martyr. Heroic play 1669.
_____. Almanzor and Almahide, or The Conquest of Granada. Heroic play. 2 parts, 1669, 1670. Pub. 1672.
_____. Marriage à la Mode. Comedy 1672.
_____. Aureng-Zebe. Heroic play. 1676.
_____. All for Love; or, The World Well Lost. Tragedy. 1677, pr. 1678.
_____. Mac-Flecknoe, or A Satyr upon the True-Blew-Protestant Poet, T. S. [Thomas Shadwell] Satire. 1676, pub. 1682.
_____. The Spanish Fryar, or The Double Discovery.  Tragicomedy. 1680.
_____.  (Anon.) Absalom and Achitophel.  (1st part). Satirical poem. 1681.
_____. The Medall. A Satyre against Sedition. By the Author of Absalom and Achitophel. Poem. 1682.
_____. Religio Laici.  Poem. 1682.
_____. To the Pious Memory of Mrs. Anne Killigrew. Poem. 1686.
_____. The Hind and the Panther. A Poem.  1687.
_____. Song for St. Cecilia's Day.  1687. Set by Draghi in 1687.
_____. King Arthur or The British Worthy. Dramatic opera. Music by Purcell. 1691.
_____, trans. Aeneis. By Virgil. 1697.
_____.  Fables Ancient and Modern, Translated into Verse from Homer, Virgil, Boccacce, and Chaucer.  1699.

Dryden, John, and William Soames, trans. Art Poétique. By Boileau. 1683.

Cosas de Dryden:

Unas notas sobre su figura y obra...  la primera mitad puede que os sirva, el resto es NIVEL AVANZADO.
O podéis mirar mejor su página de Luminarium. Eso vale para todos estos autores.  

- John Dryden y sus colaboraciones musicales.


NIVEL AVANZADO: Restoration drama.

- Purcell — Dido and Aeneas

Este siglo aparece la ópera. Purcell es quizá el mayor compositor inglés. Aquí otra versión reciente de Dido & Aeneas

- The Theatre of the Restoration notes from A History of English Literature, by Legouis and Cazamian.


John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester  (1647-1680)

2nd Earl of Rochester, b. Ditchley, Oxfordshire, son of the 1st Earl of Rochester; scandalous court wit and erotic poet under Charles II, rake and hooligan; destroyed his health through drink and sex; atheist and misanthropist, skeptic philosophical poet, libertine converted to Christian devotion before his death, d. London.

_____. "A Satyr against Reason and Mankind." Satire.
_____. "The Imperfect Enjoyment." Poem.
_____. "The Disabled Debauchee." Poem.
_____. "The Fall."  Poem.
_____. "A Satyr on Charles II." Poem.
_____. Poems on Several Occasions... 1680.
_____. "Upon Nothing." 1711.


Esta es la página de Rochester en Luminariumcon obras, crítica, etc. Es especialmente recomendable la Satire against Reason and Mankind. 

Unas notas complementarias sobre Rochester. 


Una breve biografía y algunas obras de Milton. Por cierto, bibliografías más completas de todos estos autores se encuentran en

JOHN MILTON         (1608-1674)

English poet, son of a London musician and scrivener; studied in Christ's College, Cambridge, BA 1628, MA 1632; turned vs. Anglicanism, then private study at father's house in Buckinghamshire; tour of Italy late 30s; private tutor and active Protestant pamphleteer and polemicist in London; married  Mary Powell, of Royalist family, 1643, estranged for some time, advocated divorce; reconciliation with wife; austere and authoritarian patriarch, militant masculinist, 

Independent critic of Presbyterians, Latin secretary to the Commonwealth, supported regicide, apologist of Cromwell; blind 1652; wife died after childbirth, son died, 3 surviving daughters; m. Katharine Woodcock, died after childbirth; m. Elizabeth Minshull after Restoration (no surviving children from later wives); 

Milton protected Royalists under war and Commonwealth and was protected by Davenant and Marvell after the Restoration: fined but pardoned; abandoned political activity, private life as man of letters, historian, theologian and neoclassical poet, helped by his family and visitors, organ player for recreation.

Early works:

  _____."On the Morning of Christ's Nativity. Compos'd 1629." Ode. In Poems. 1645.
_____. "On Shakespeare" Sonnet. 1630.
_____. "L'Allegro" /"Il Penseroso." Poems. c. 1631.
_____. Comus. Masque. 1634.
_____. "Lycidas." Pastoral elegy. 1637.

_____. Poems / of / Mr. John Milton, / both / English and Latin, / Compos'd at Several Times. / 1645.

Middle Works

 _____. Of Reformation Touching Church Discipline in England. 1641.
_____. The Reason of Church Government Urg'd Against Prelaty, by Mr. John Milton. 1641-42.
_____. The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce. 1643.
_____. Areopagitica: A Speech of Mr John Milton For the Liberty of Unlicenc'd Printing, To the Parliament of England. 1644.
_____. "On the new forcers of Conscience under the Long PARLIAMENT." Expanded sonnet. c. 1646.
_____. The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates. 1649.
_____. EIKONOCLASTES. 1649.
_____. Pro populo Anglicano Defensio. Political pamphlet. 1651.
_____. "Cromwell, our Chief of Men." Sonnet. Pub. 1694.
_____. "When I Consider How My Light Is Spent." Sonnet. c. 1652.
_____. "On the late Massacher in Piedmont." Sonnet.  1655.
_____. "Methought I saw my late espoused Saint."  Sonnet. 1658.


Late works:

 _____. PARADISE LOST. Epic poem in 10 books, 1667. Rev. in 12 books, 1674.
_____.  History of Britain. 1670.
_____. PARADISE / REGAIN'D. / A / POEM. / In IV BOOKS. / To which is added / SAMSON AGONISTES. 1671.


John Milton: Paradise Lost

From Book 1 

Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste
Brought death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,
Sing, Heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed
In the beginning how the heavens and earth
Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill
Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flowed
Fast by the oracle of God, I thence
Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th' Aonian mount, while it pursues
Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme.
And chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all temples th' upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first
Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread,
Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss,
And mad'st it pregnant: what in me is dark
Illumine, what is low raise and support;
That, to the height of this great argument,
I may assert Eternal Providence,
And justify the ways of God to men.


Materiales sobre John Milton en Internet abundan:

- "John Milton (1608-1674)." en Luminarium.

- Spark Notes: Paradise Lost

—y un audio de la BBC de Adam Nicolson. 

4. Literatura inglesa del siglo XIX

 Nuestros siguientes autores para esta última semana de noviembre son, de tres en tres:  - los poetas románticos Wordsworth, Keats y Byron -...