sábado, 24 de octubre de 2020




Recordad que ya podéis ir leyendo y estudiando los textos de esta sección, que están en la segunda parte de vuestro bloque de fotocopias. Para dudas y consultas sobre ellos y sobre los autores de la sección B, podéis anotarlas y enviármelas por correo a garciala@unizar.es

- Unas notas sobre un poeta modernista norteamericano: e. e. cummings.

Y otro inglés:

W. H.  AUDEN     (1907-1973)

(Wystan Hugh Auden, modernist English poet, born in York; anglo-catholic family; studied at Gresham's School, Holt and Christ Church, Oxford;  homosexual, 1928 stay in Berlin with Isherwood, 1930s taught in Scotland and Downs School, Birmingham; professional writer late 30s, leftist sympathies before the war, turned conservative thereafter, cultivated Christian humanism and literary tradition; trips to Spanish War and China; expatriate in US 1939; US citizen c. 1946, lived half-year in Europe and USA with
life partner Chester Kallman in New York; summer stays in Ischia and Kirschtetten; honorary Professor of Poetry U of Oxford, 1956-60s; died in Vienna)

Auden, W. H.  Poems. 1930.
_____. Look, Stranger! Poems.  1936.
_____. "Spain 1937." Poem. 1937, 1940.
_____. "In Memory of W. B. Yeats." Poem. 1939.
_____. "In Time of War." Sonnet sequence. 1939.
_____. Another Time. Poems.  1940.
_____. New Year Letter. Poems. 1941.
_____. The Age of Anxiety. Poems. 1947.
_____. The Shield of Achilles. Poems. 1955.
_____. Homage to Clio. Poems. 1960.

_____. About the House. Poems. 1965.
_____. Los señores del límite: Selección de poemas y ensayos (1927-1973). 2007.





- Dos influyentes críticos de la sociedad moderna y sus tendencias distópicas: Huxley y Orwell

Los poemas de Sylvia Plath, poeta feminista y suicida.

- Dylan Thomas, poeta galés, recita uno de sus poemas en la radio.




WILLIAM FAULKNER        (1897-1962)
_____.  Soldier's Pay. Novel. 1926.
_____. Mosquitoes. 1927.
_____. Sartoris. Novel. 1929.
_____. The Sound and the Fury. Novel. 1929.
_____. As I Lay Dying. Novel. 1930.
_____. "A Rose for Emily." Story. 1930.
_____. Sanctuary. Novel. New York: Random House, 1931.
_____. Light in August.  Novel. 1932.
_____. Pylon. Novel. 1935.
_____. Absalom, Absalom! 1936.
_____. The Wild Palms. Novel. 1939.
_____. The Hamlet. Novel. 1940. (Vol. 1 of the Snopes trilogy).
_____. The Big Sleep. Film script based on Raymond Chandler's novel. 1946.
_____. Go Down, Moses. Stories / novel. 1942.
_____. Collected Stories of William Faulkner. 1950.
_____. Requiem for a Nun. Novel. 1951.
_____. A Fable. Novel. 1954.
_____. The Town. Novel. 1957. (Vol. 2 of the Snopes trilogy).
_____. The Mansion. Novel. 1959. (Vol. 3 of the Snopes trilogy).

William Faulkner was a US southern writer, major modernist novelist and story writer; b. William Harrison Falkner in New Albany, Mississippi; l. Oxford, Lafayette county; Nobel Prize for Literature 1949; Pulitzer Prize 1955, 1962; d. Byhalia, Mississipi. He is best known for his complex narrative style involving the memories and mental worlds of characters, and for his portraits of Southern society. Faulkner's South is scarred by the legacies of racism and slavery, with deep-set social divisions as traditional rural communities both decay and endure amid twentieth-century disruptions.


An introduction to Hemingway and Faulkner  (by Richard Gray)



ERNEST HEMINGWAY        (1899-1961)

_____.  In Our Time. Stories. 1925.
_____. The Sun Also Rises. Novel. 1926. (= Fiesta)
_____. Men Without Women. Stories. 1927.
_____. A Farewell to Arms. Novel. 1929.
_____. Death in the Afternoon. Essay. 1932.
_____. Winner Take Nothing. Stories. 1933.
_____. Green Hills of Africa. Novel. 1935.
_____. To Have and Have Not. Novel. 1937.
_____. The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories. 1938.
_____. For Whom the Bell Tolls. Novel. 1940.
_____. Men at War. Stories. 1942.
_____. The Old Man and the Sea. Novel. 1952.
_____. The Dangerous Summer. Report. 1960.
_____. A Moveable Feast. Memoir. 1964.
_____. Islands in the Stream. Novel. 1970.
_____. The Garden of Eden. Novel. 1986.
_____. True at First Light. Novel. 1999.

Hemingway was a major US novelist and short story writer; doctor's son, second of six children, b. Oak Park, Illinois; father committed suicide; reporter at Kansas City Star volunteer ambulance driver in Italy 1st WW, wounded and decorated; USA 1919, married and settled in Paris as foreign correspondent 1921, reporter at Greco-Turkish war 1922, "Lost Generation" expatriate with Ezra Pound, Fitzgerald and Gertrude Stein; became Catholic, reporter at the Spanish War and anti-Nazi activist during World War II; left-wing sympathies, lived in Key West and Cuba; travelled widely, modernist aesthetics of impersonality and spare realistic style, journalist, traveller, sportsman, big-game hunter and sporting fisherman; socialite, divorced, several marriages and divorces; alcoholic, suffered severe accidents, Nobel Prize for Literature 1954, seriously ill, electroshock sessions, committed suicide in Ketchum, Idaho.



SECCIÓN B, nivel avanzado: Hemingway and others.


VIRGINIA WOOLF     (1882-1941)

(English woman of letters, modernist writer and forerunner of feminist criticism, b. at High Park Gate as Adeline Virginia Stephen, daughter of scholar Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth; lived in Bloomsbury, London, 1904-, nucleus of the "Bloomsbury Group" of intellectuals and artists; contributor to the Times Literary Supplement; married Leonard Woolf 1912; leading modernist novelist and critic; loving "lesbian" friendship with writer Vita Sackville-West; suffered frequent mental disturbances and heard voices; committed suicide by drowning in the river Ouse, Sussex)

_____. The Voyage Out. Novel. 1915.
_____. Night and Day. Novel. 1919.
_____. "The Mark on the Wall." Experimental prose. http://www.online-literature.com/virginia_woolf/855/
_____. Jacob's Room. Novel. 1922.
_____. Mrs. Dalloway. Novel. London: Hogarth, 1925.
_____. The Common Reader.  1925.
_____. To the Lighthouse. Fiction. 1927.
_____. Orlando: A Biography. Novel. 1928.
_____. A Room of One's Own. 1929.
_____. The Waves. Novel. 1931.
_____. The Years. Novel. 1937.
_____. Between the Acts. Experimental novel. 1941.
_____. The Moment and Other Essays. 1948.
_____. A Writer's Diary.
_____. Moments of Being. Memoirs.
_____. The Diary of Virginia Woolf.

 Why should you read Virginia Woolf ?

El grupo de Bloomsbury, círculo modernista bohemio chic de Londres.

"Virginia Woolf: Huerto, jardín y campo de batalla." Conferencia de Laura Freixas,



 Sección B, NIVEL AVANZADO: Virginia Woolf







Muchos autores quedan fuera de programa, entre ellos algunos de los más populares actualmente—Stephen King, Agatha Christie.... Como no podemos incluir más autores en el programa, para curiosear sobre estos "fuera de programa" os remito a la Wikipedia, que es excelente sitio para empezar—incluyendo los autores del programa. Aquí Agatha Christie (en la edición inglesa mejor, claro).

En SparkNotes http://www.sparknotes.com  encontráis abundantes materiales didácticos sobre literatura inglesa.


T. S. Eliot           (1888-1965)

Thomas Stearns Eliot, US/British poet, critic and dramatist; b. St Louis; Ph.D. Harvard; st. France and Germany, l. London, bank clerk at Lloyd's; married Vivienne Haigh-Wood, expressed disgust with sex in poetry; unhappy marriage, wife with mental problems, separated 1933; married Vivien Eliot 1957; l. London; conservative social critic, influential modernist poet and critic, poetic dramatist; anti-modernist in ideas, "classicist, anglo-Catholic and monarchic"; w. as poetry ed. for Faber and Gwyer, later Faber and Faber; major influence on English-speaking literary world; Order of Merit 1948; Nobel Prize for Literature 1949; d. London.

______.  Prufrock and Other Observations. Poems. 1917.  
_____. "Tradition and the Individual Talent." Essay. 1919.
_____. The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism. London, 1920.
_____. "The Metaphysical Poets." Essay. 1921.
_____. The Waste Land. Poem. 1922.
_____. "Ulysses, Order and Myth." Essay. 1923.
_____. Dante. Essay. 1929.
_____. Ash Wednesday. Poem. 1930.
_____. The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism. 1933.
_____. After Strange Gods. Criticism. New York: Harcourt, 1933.
_____. Murder in the Cathedral. Drama. 1936.
_____. The Family Reunion. Drama. 1939.
_____. Four Quartets. Poems. 1943.
_____. The Cocktail Party. Drama.  1949.
_____. Collected Poems 1909-1935. London: Faber, 1957.
_____. On Poetry and Poets. London: Faber, 1957.
_____. Selected Essays. New ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1960.
_____. Collected Poems 1909-1962. London: Faber, 1963. 1974.*
_____. To Criticize the Critic. New York: Farrar, 1965.
_____. Selected Poetry of Thomas Stearns Eliot. In Representative Poetry Online. U of Toronto.

 Unas notas sobre T. S. Eliot



Sección B: Drama, T. S. Eliot, Modernism: NIVEL AVANZADO


JAMES JOYCE         (1882-1941)

Expatriate Irish writer, leading modernist, experimental novelist; lived a bohemian life in Trieste and then Paris; famous for his representation of the 'stream of consciousness' of his characters in narrative, and for his complex multilayered wordplay and intertextual allusions. Joyce is the ultimate model for 'difficult' and elitist Modernist literature, initially censored in English-speaking countries on grounds of obscenity.

Joyce, James.
Dubliners. Short stories. 1914.
_____. Exiles.
_____. Stephen Hero.
_____. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
Novel. 1916. (Rewriting of Stephen Hero).
_____ . Ulysses.
Experimental novel. Paris, 1922.
_____. Collected Poems.
_____. Finnegans Wake.
Experimental novel. 1939.

- An introduction to James Joyce, from the Norton Anthology.

- Jorge Luis Borges, "Conferencia sobre James Joyce." (audio): https://youtu.be/i_ZTt_JQXRU




Empezamos la sección B con un premio Nobel irlandés, W. B. Yeats:

W. B. YEATS     (1865-1939)

Anglo-Irish poet; b. Sandymount, Dublin; son of painter J. B. Yeats; lived in London 1874-83; later in Dublin / London / Sligo; associated to the folk Irish revival in late 19th, then Modernist poet and close friend of Ezra Pound; a superstitious believer in occultism and magic, he held anti-bourgeois aristocratic ideals and sympathized with Fascist movements and traditionalism. He was in love with nationalist Maud Gonne, but was rejected by her; he married a "psychic" wife, 'George' Hyde-Lees in 1917; Irish Free State senator allied to the interests of the Protestant landed classes and a friend of Lady Gregory, he promoted with her the Irish National Theatre at the Abbey Theatre and  lived in a tower in her land; Nobel Prize for Literature 1923.

Yeats, W. B. "The Madness of King Goll." Poem. 1884, pub. 1887.
_____. "The Wanderings of Oisin." Poem. 1889.
_____. "The Lake Isle of Innisfree." Poem. 1890.
_____. "The Sorrow of Love." Poem. 1891.
_____. The Countess Kathleen.
Drama. 1892.
_____. Crossways.
Poems. 1892.
_____. The Rose.
Poems. 1893.
_____. "Who Goes with Fergus?" Poem. 1893.
_____. The Land of Heart's Desire.
Drama. 1894.
_____. The Wind among the Reeds.
Poems. 1899.
_____. The Shadowy Waters.
Dramatic poetry. 1902, 1906.
_____. In the Seven Woods.
Poems. 1903.
_____. The Green Helmet and Other Poems.
_____. Deirdre.
Drama. 1906.
_____. Responsibilities.
Poems. 1914.
_____. "Easter 1916." Poem. 1916.
_____. "The Second Coming." Poem. 1919
_____. The Wild Swans at Coole.
Poems. 1919.
_____. "An Irish Airman Foresees His Death." Poem. 1919.
_____. Michael Robartes and the Dancer.
Poems. 1921.
_____. "Leda and the Swan." Poem. 1923.
_____. "Among School Children." Poem. 1926.
_____. "Sailing to Byzantium." Poem. 1926
_____. The Tower.
Poems. 1928.
_____. The Winding Stair, and Other Poems.
_____. A Full Moon in March.
Poems. 1935.
_____. "Under Ben Bulben." Poem. 1938.

An introduction to W. B. Yeats, from the Norton Anthology. With links to further criticism. 

Wikipedia is also a good resource for all our writers in section B: W. B. Yeats.


Sección B, NIVEL AVANZADO: A Yale lecture on Yeats.



Comenzamos la sección B con los autores del siglo XX. Recordad que los autores de la sección B no entran como tema de redacción: sí como preguntas cortas, y como comentario/traducción. Son para preparación individual,  con los materiales que iré añadiendo aquí...

... y con el manual que os habéis comprado, sin duda. Aquí está el manual recomendado, el de Alexander:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B9a3FSxKl6ZlV0dkUkJSWHR0dEU/view?usp=drivesdk   (Michael Alexander: A History of English Literature)

Y aquí otro de NIVEL MÁS AVANZADO, el de Oxford:

PDF (The Short Oxford History of English Literature)


W. H. Auden


(From the Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble):

AUDEN, W[ystan] H[ugh] (1907-73), the youngest son of a doctor, brought up in Birmingham and educated at Gresham's School, Holt. He began to be taken seriously as a poet while still at Christ Church, Oxford, where he was much influenced by Anglo-Saxon and Middle English poetry, but also began to explore the means of preserving 'private spheres' (through poetry) in 'public chaos'. 

Among his contemporaries, who were to share some of his left-wing near-Marxist response to the public chaos of the 1930s were MacNeice, Day-Lewis, and Spender, with whom his name is often linked (See PYLON SCHOOL).  After Oxford, Auden lived for a time in Berlin; he returned to England in 1929 to work as a schoolteacher, but continued to visit Germany regularly, staying with his friend and future collaborator Isherwood. 

His first volume, Poems (including some previously published in a private edition, 1928) was accepted for publication by T. S. Eliot at Faber and Faber and appeared in 1930; it was well received and established him as the most talented voice of his generation. The Orators followed in 1932, and Look Stranger! in 1936. In 1932 he became associated with Rupert Doone's Group Theatre, which produced several of his plays (The Dance of Death, 1933; and, with Isherwood, The Dog Beneath the Skin, 1935); these owe something to the early plays of Brecht. (See also EXPRESSIONISM). Working from 1935 with the GPO Film Unit he became friendly with Britten, who set many of his poems to music and later used Auden's text for his opera Paul Bunyan. 

In 1935 he married Erika Mann to provide her with a British passport to escape from Nazi Germany. A visit to Iceland with MacNeice in 1935 produced their joint Letters from Iceland (1937); Journey to a War (1939, with Isherwood) records a journey to China. 

Meanwhile in 1937 he had visited Spain for two months, to support the Republicans, but his resulting poem 'Spain' (1937) is less partisan and more detached in tone than might have been expected, and in January 1939 he and Isherwood left Europe for America (he became a US citizen in 1946) where he met Chester Kallman, who became his lifelong friend and companion. 

Another Time(1940), containing many of his most famous poems (including 'September 1939' and 'Lullaby'), was followed in 1941 by The Double Man (1941), published in London asNew Year Letter), a long transitional verse epistle describing the 'baffling crime' of 'two decades of hypocrisy', rejecting political simplifications, accepting man's essential solitude, and ending with a prayer for refuge and illumination for the 'muddled heart'. 

From this time Auden's poetry became increasingly Christian in tone (to such an extent that he even altered some of his earlier work to bring it in line and disowned some of his political pieces); this was perhaps not unconnected with the death in 1941 of his devout Anglo-Catholic mother, to whom he dedicated For the Time Being: A Christmas Oratorio (1944). This was published with The Sea and the Mirror, a series of dramatic monologues inspired by The Tempest. The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue (1948) is a long dramatic poem, reflecting man's isolation, which opens in a New York bar at night, and ends with dawn on the streets.

Auden's absence during the war led to a poor reception of his works in England at that period, but the high quality of his later work reinstated him as an unquestionably major poet; in 1956 he was elected professor of poetry at Oxford, and in 1962 he became a student (i.e. fellow) of Christ Church. 

His major later collections include Nones (1951, NY; 1952, London), The Shield of Achilles (1955), which includes 'Horae Canonicae' and 'Bucolics' and is considered by many his best single volume; and Homage to Clio (1960), which includes a high proportion of light verse. Auden had edited The Oxford Book of Light Verse in 1938, and subsequently many other anthologies, collections, etc.; his own prose criticism includes The Enchafèd Flood (1950, NY; 1951, London), The Dyer's Hand (1962, NY; 1963, London), and Secondary Worlds (1968, T. S. Eliot Memorial Lectures). He also wrote several librettos, notably for Stravinsky's The  Rake's Progress (1951, with Kallman).  

About the House (1965, NY; 1966, London), one of his last volumes of verse, contains a tender evocation of his life with Kallman at their summer house in Austria. Auden spent much of the last years of his life in London, and died suddenly in Vienna. His Collected Poems, edited by Edward Mendleson, were published in 1991. A volume of Juvenilia, edited by Katherine Bucknell, appeared in 1994.

Auden's influence on a succeeding generation of poets was incalculable, comparable only with that, a generation earlier, of Yeats, to whom Auden himself pays homage in 'In Memory of W.B. Yeats' (1939). His progress from the engaged, didactic, satiric poems of his youth to the complexity of his later work offered a wide variety of models—the urbane, the pastoral, the lyrical, the erudite, the public, and the introspective mingle with great fluency. He was a master of verse form, and accomodated traditional patterns to a fresh, easy, and contemporary language. 

A life by Humphrey Carpenter was published in 1981. See also The Auden Generation by S. Hynes (1976).



La última semana de octubre trataremos sobre Marvell y la literatura de mediados del siglo XVII, terminando el tema 2. Y pasamos al tema 3, literatura de la Restauración y Siglo XVIII.

En la Sección B, seguimos con el Tema 6: Literatura inglesa y norteamericana 1900-1960.

Viernes 23 de octubre: pasamos a Ben Jonson y John Donne.


JOHN DONNE (1572-1631)
(English metaphysical poet, b. London, Catholic gentry stock; st. Oxford, Cambridge, Lincoln's Inn; travelled Spain and Italy; secretary to Lord Chancellor and MP; secretly married patron's niece Anne More, dismissed in disgrace; many children, impoverished gentry, l. Surrey, ordained Anglican Priest; favour at King James's Court, Dean of St. Paul's, theatrical preacher, notorious weaver of paradoxes and alambicated wit)

_____. "Songs and Sonets" —in Poems.
_____. "Elegies"—in Poems.
_____. "Satires." —in Poems.
_____. Biathanatos. Discourse on suicide. Written 1608, posth. pub.
_____. Pseudo-Martyr. Discourse against Catholics. 1610.
_____. Ignatius His Conclave. Prose satire. 1610-11.
 _____. The First Anniversary. Elegy. 1611.
_____. "Divine Poems." —in  Poems.
_____. Devotions upon Emergent Occasions. 1624.
_____. Poems.  1633. 2nd ed. 1635.
_____. Essays in Divinity. 1651.

Apuntes sobre Donne:

John Donne.  In Luminarium:

Some notes on John Donne (from The Penguin Short History of English Literature).

-A note on the metaphysical poets and the metaphysical conceit.
- Un famoso pasaje de las Devotions upon Emergent Occasions de Donneno es propiamente un poema, pero también lo es: No Man is an Island.

Otro famoso poema de Donne: "The Canonization": http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173353

- John Donne, Sonnet XIX - O to vex me...
- Sobre "The Good-Morrow"
está esta explicación que hice yo hace tiempo, o esta otra en vídeo.




BEN JONSON     (1572-1637)

English dramatist and poet, born in Westminster, orphaned son of a Protestant minister, studied at Westminster School, left Cambridge without a degree, apprenticed as bricklayer to his father-in-law; volonteer in Flanders army 1592, killed enemy in single combat, actor in London c. 1594, imprisoned for manslaughter, converted to Catholicism for some time, married 1594, 2 children died; returned to Anglicanism 1606; pensioned by the King 1616; honorary MA Oxford 1619; poet for aristocratic patrons, apologist of Stuart royalty; neoclassical theorist and literary authority, overweight and hard drinker; model for Cavalier poets and Restoration dramatists.

_____.  Every Man in his Humour. Comedy. 1596, 1598.
_____. Cynthia's Revels. Drama.  1600.
_____. Every Man Out of His Humour. Comedy. 1600.
_____. The Poetaster. Comedy. Acted at Blackfriars, 1601.
_____. Sejanus His Fall. Tragedy. 1603.
_____. The Masque of Blackness. Acted 1605.

_____. Volpone. Comedy. 1606.
_____. Epicoene: Or, The Silent Woman. Comedy. 1609-10.
_____. The Masque of Queens. 1609.
_____. The Alchemist. Comedy. c. 1610.
_____. Catiline His Conspiracy. Tragedy. Pub. 1611.
_____. Love Restored. Masque. 1612.
_____. Bartholomew Fair. Comedy. 1614.
_____. The Workes of Beniamin Jonson.  1616.

_____. "To the Memory of my Beloved, Master William Shakespeare, and What He Has Left Us." 1623. 
_____. The Staple of Newes. Comedy. 1626.
_____. Works. 2nd ed. 1640. (Including: Timber: Or, Discoveries, criticism).



 Some notes on Ben Jonson






El martes 20 de octubre seguimos con Shakespeare. Traed sus  textos.

Otra cosa: están abiertas las encuestas de docencia del primer cuatrimestre. Las podéis realizar en esta asignatura en cuanto queráis en https://encuestas.unizar.es/

Y nos anuncian que anunciemos que

se ha convocado la segunda edición del PREMIO LITERARIO DE NARRATIVA CORTA patrocinado por el Consejo Social de la Universidad de Zaragoza y el Departamento de Ciencia, Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento del Gobierno de Aragón. Más información: https://consejosocial.unizar.es/premio-literario





 Richard II: The Deposition Scene (IV.1)

 Macbeth: The Sleepwalking Scene (V.1)



Esta semana vemos algo de Shakespeare. Leed algo por anticipado— o id recuperando algo de lecturas pasadas si preferís. Voy añadiendo materiales relativos a los temas ya vistos en clase, en cada una de las unidades.

No olvidéis traer los textos a clase.
Procuraremos leer todos los días un ratito, y traducir y comentar al paso. Así pues, esta semana Shakespeare primero, y después pasamos a Jonson, Donne y Marvell, por ese orden.


Una introducción a Shakespeare en su contexto histórico (nivel algo avanzado).

En Project Gutenberg tenéis los textos completos de todas las obras de Shakespeare. Por ejemplo:

The Tragedy of King Richard II

(the deposition scene: 4.1)



Seguimos mientras añadiendo autores del siglo XX en la SECCIÓN B



El 9 de octubre leeremos algo de Spenser (The Faerie Queene), y pasamos a Shakespeare.




William Shakespeare (1564-1616), born and dead in Stratford-upon-Avon, leading dramatist with the King's Men at the Globe Theatre, London; poet and actor; collaborated with Ben Jonson, Marston, and Fletcher; major writer of history plays, comedies, tragicomedies, tragedies and dramatic romances. Total dramatist, both realistic, poetic and metadramatic; keen sense of the stage and of social dramatism; artificer of creative language, of complex and diverse characters, and of fast-moving plots usually based on previous dramas or stories.

EARLY WORKS (1589-93):

Titus Andronicus
The Comedy of Errors
Henry VI (3 parts)
Richard III

and later (1593-97)

The Taming of the Shrew
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Love's Labour's Lost
Romeo and Juliet
King John
Richard II
A Midsummer Night's Dream
The Merchant of Venice

Venus and Adonis (1593)
The Rape of Lucrece (1594)

MIDDLE WORKS (1598-1604)

Henry IV (2 parts)
Henry V
The Merry Wives of Windsor
Much Ado About Nothing
Julius Caesar
As You Like It
Twelfth Night
Troilus and Cressida
All's Well that Ends Well
Measure for Measure


King Lear
Antony and Cleopatra
Timon of Athens


The Sonnets (1609)

The Winter's Tale
The Tempest

Henry VIII
The Two Noble Kinsmen

Collected plays in the "First Folio", a.k.a.

Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies,

UNA COMEDIA FESTIVA DE SHAKESPEARE (EN ESPAÑOL). NOCHE DE REYES, por Morfeo Teatro, grupo de teatro de nuestra Facultad.

(Nuestra selección, min. 25)


Sección B: Recordatorio: Id estudiando a la par los autores del  siglo XX. Ahora vamos por la Unidad 6.


Una introducción sencillita a Shakespeare, en español:  "La Biblioteca (William Shakespeare)." Audio. La Voz 5 May 2016.*



Shakespeare: Nivel avanzado

Entrar en Shakespeare es no salir. Quien quiera ampliar conocimientos sobre él (y es, dicho mal y pronto, el autor más importante que haya escrito jamás en cualquier literatura) tiene millones de páginas en Internet. Ask Google. 

Y unas notas sobre dos contemporáneos que precedieron a Shakespeare: Kyd y Marlowe.


Con los Pilares acabaremos la primera fase del curso "antes de Shakespeare". Momento de reflexión y evaluación sobre la marcha del curso

-  ¿Seguís bien las clases? Si hay problemas de comprensión, etc.—se admiten más preguntas en clase, y consulta de dudas en tutorías. Quienes no asistan, espero que lleven una marcha de estudio constante sin embargo, porque no es en absoluto recomendable el intentar prepararse esta asignatura en unas pocas semanas antes del examen.

- ¿Tenéis material adecuado? Habéis comprado, en efecto, un buen diccionario, un buen manual o dos, de literatura inglesa y norteamericana?

- ¿Consultáis con regularidad esta web y los materiales adicionales? ¿Os acordáis de traer a clase las lecturas al día? ¿Vais siguiendo por vuestra cuenta la sección B del programa (siglo XX), a la par que la sección A?

Si no es el caso, ahora estáis a tiempo de coger la marcha, que aún estamos iniciando el curso. Pero si no lo habéis hecho hasta ahora, pensad que requiere quizá un cambio de hábitos y más horario semanal dedicado al estudio de esta asignatura.

Id decidiendo ya si queréis hacer trabajos de curso o solamente examen final, y organizad el trabajo de modo acorde. Si alguien quiere hacer los trabajos en forma de presentación en clase, que me aviste para fijar fecha.

- Para la preparación de la materia del examen: tened en cuenta que una pregunta del tema será el nombre de uno de los autores de la sección A del programa, para hacer una redacción en inglés sobre él. Otro tema de redacción (a elegir entre el primero y éste) será más amplio, sobre un género y época, tipo "La poesía en el Renacimiento"—pero naturalmente conviene hablar en ella de los autores y lecturas que conozcáis relacionados con esa cuestión, y utilizar tanto lo que oigáis en clase o preparéis con manuales, como vuestra propia experiencia de lectura. El comentario / traducción (parte principal del examen) puede ser de cualquier texto del programa, pero si pongo un texto de la sección B será a elegir con otro de la sección A.



English drama before Shakespeare:


- Medieval Mysteries and Moralities 

- Humanist drama:

John Heywood,  The Play of the Weather. 1533.

Nicholas Udall, Ralph Roister Doister. c. 1552.

Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville, Gorboduc. 1562.

- The University Wits:

John Lyly, Sapho and Phao. 1584.
_____. Endimion.

- Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy. 1580s.

- Christopher Marlowe,
_____. Tamburlaine the Great.  c. 1586,
_____. The Jew of Malta. 
c. 1592.
_____. Edward II. 
_____. Doctor Faustus. 
c. 1592-93.

El 6 de octubre pasamos al Tema 2 (Renacimiento), empezando con Sidney y Spenser. Utilizaremos sus textos de las fotocopias, siguiendo el orden.


 Segunda semana de octubre

Esta semana hablamos de un par de poetas renacentistas, Sidney y Spenser. Sobre ambos hay material en Luminarium, un interesante sitio web sobre literatura inglesa clásica que tenéis recomendado en el programa.

"Sir Philip Sidney." At Luminarium.org

Luego pasaremos a Shakespeare, de quien hay una selección más larga de fragmentos. Id leyendo lo que podáis, y traed a clase los textos. También se pueden consultar problemas de comprensión con las lecturas en tutorías, tomando nota de vuestras dudas.


SIR PHILIP SIDNEY         (1554-1586)

(English renaissance poet, critic and man of letters, aristocratic courtier and Protestant leader; d. in combat at Zutphen, Low Countries)

_____.  Arcadia.
Prose romance. 1580s, pub. 1590.
_____. Astrophil and Stella.
Sonnet sequence. c. 1582, pub. 1591, 1598. (Sonnet1 - Sonnet 45)
_____. An Apologie for Poetry or The Defence of Poetry.
Discourse. Written c. 1580, pub. 1595.

- A video lecture on Sidney - Astrophil and Stella




The English humanists 

- A video documentary on Sir Philip Sidney.

The Elizabethan Sonnet


EDMUND SPENSER         (1552-1599)

(English poet, b. London middle classes, st. Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, MA 1576; colonist in Ireland, advocates genocide, victim of Irish rebellion, Elizabethan courtier, quasi-Poet laureate)

"Visions" and sonnets, trans. from Petrarch and du Bellay.
_____. The Shepheards Calendar.
_____. "Astrophel."
Elegy on Sir Philip Sidney.
_____. Complaints.
_____. Colin Clouts come Home again.
Pastoral. 1595.
_____. Amoretti.
Sonnet sequence. c. 1595.
_____. Four Hymns on Love and Beauty.
_____. Epithalamion. Poem.
_____. Prothalamion. Poem.
_____. The Faerie Queene.
Unfinished epic poem. Books 1-3, 1590. Then 1596, 1609.
_____. A View of the Present State of Ireland.
1596, pub. 1603.

Read also Sonnet 75

Spenserian stanza: ababbcbcc (with a final Alexandrine)

Una pequeña introducción a Spenser, del Oxford Companion to English Literature.



Andrew Hadfield on Edmund Spenser (video)

A lecture on Spenser and The Faerie Queene (Adam Crowley)


Un interludio en los Pilares: PREMIOS NOBEL RECIENTES (EN INGLÉS)


16th-century England: The historical and literary context

Tudor dynasty:
Henry VII r. 1485-
Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547; Reformation, 1529-39),
    - Edward VI (1547-53),
    - Mary Tudor (1553-58),
    - Elizabeth (r. 1558-1603) - The Armada, 1588

Religious writings:

- The Book of Common Prayer (1549-)

Biblical translations:
- William Tyndale; Miles Coverdale; 

- The Bishops' Bible.
- (Later: King James Bible or "Authorized Version" in 1611)

Scottish reformers:
John Knox, Sir David Lindsay, George Buchanan. 


Petrarchan poets (Tottel's Miscellany, 1557):

- Sir Thomas Wyatt
- Earl of Surrey  

Rhyme scheme of the Elizabethan sonnet: 

abab cdcd efef gg

Prose writers:

Sir Thomas More, Utopia. 1516 (English, 1551).

Sir Thomas Elyot, The Governour. 1531.

Sir John Cheke, The Hurt of Sedition. 1549.

Thomas Wilson, The Arte of Rhetorique. 1553.

John Foxe, Book of Martyrs (Actes and Monuments). 1563.

Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster. 1570.

Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 1577.

John Lyly. Euphues. Romance. 1578.

William Camden, Britannia. Geography. 1586.

Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation. 1589.

Sir Walter Ralegh, The Discovery of Guiana. 1596.





Recordad que seguimos añadiendo nuevos autores en la Sección B (tema 6).

viernes, 23 de octubre de 2020

The Metaphysical Poets and the Metaphysical Conceit


En literatura inglesa no se suele emplear el término "barroco" (baroque). El estilo que aquí llamaríamos barroco o exageradamente complicado y alambicado lo llaman allí "metaphysical": the metaphysical poets, los poetas metafísicos o conceptistas; el "concepto" o juego de ideas conceptista o barroco es el "metaphysical conceit":


 Conceit,  an elaborate metaphor comparing two apparently dissimilar objects or emotions, often with an effect of shock or surprise. The *Petrarchan conceit, much imitated by Elizabethan sonneteers and both used and parodied by Shakespeare, usually evoked the qualities of the disdainful mistress and the devoted lover, often in highly exaggerated terms; the *Metaphysical conceit, as used by *Donne and his followers, applied wit and ingenuity to, in the words of  Dr. *Johnson, 'a combination of dissimilar images, or discovery of occult resemblances in things apparently unlike' e.g. Donne's famous comparison of two lovers to a pair of compasses.


Metaphysical  Poets. Poets generally grouped under the label include *Donne (who is regarded as founder of the 'school'), George *Herbert, *Crashaw, *Henry Vaughan, *Marvell and *Traherne, together with lesser figures like *Benlowes, *Herbert of Cherbury, Henry *King, Abraham *Cowley and *Cleveland. The label was first used (disparagingly) by Dr. *Johnson in his 'Life of Cowley' (written in 1777). *Dryden had complained that Donne 'affects the metaphysics', perplexing the minds of the fair sex with 'nice speculations of philosophy'. Earlier still William *Drummond censored poetic innovators who employed 'Metaphysical Ideas and Scholastical Quiddities'. The label is misleading, since none of these poets is seriously interested in metaphysics (except Herbert of Cherbury, , and even he excludes the interest from his poetry). Further, these poets have in reality little in common: the features their work is generally taken to display are sustained dialectic, paradox, novelty, incongruity, 'muscular' rhythms, giving the effect of a 'speaking voice', and the use of 'conceits', or comparisons in which tenor and vehicle can be related only by ingenious pseudo-logic.

With the new taste for clarity and the impatience with figurative language that prevailed after the *Restoration, their reputation dwindled. Their revival was delayed until after the First World War when the revaluation of metaphysical poetry, and the related downgrading of *Romanticism and *Milton, was the major feature of the rewriting of English history  in the first half of the 20th cent. Key documents in the revival were H. J. C. *Grierson's Metaphysical Lyrics and Poems of the Seventeenth Century (1921) and T. S. *Eliot's essay 'Metaphysical Poets', which first appeared as a review of Grierson's collection (TLS, 20 Oct. 1921). According to Eliot these poets had the advantage of writing at a time when thought and feeling were closely fused, before the *'dissociation of sensibility' set in about the time of Milton. Their virtues of difficulty and togh newness were felt to relate them closely to the modernists—*Pound, *Yeats, and Eliot himself.

(From The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature)



SECCIÓN B,  TEMA 6: LITERATURA INGLESA Y NORTEAMERICANA 1900-1960 Recordad que ya podéis ir leyendo y estudiando los textos de esta secci...